By Bruce Cameron, Edward Crawley , Daniel Selva
Structure and serve as of advanced Systems
System structure is the examine of early choice making in complicated structures. this article teaches the right way to seize event and research approximately early process judgements, and the way to decide on architectures that meet stakeholder wishes, combine simply, and evolve flexibly. With case reviews written by means of major practitioners, from hybrid vehicles to communications networks to plane, this article showcases the technological know-how and paintings of process structure.
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12. An Airbus A320 tried to land in a crosswind with the upwind wing held low. On the slippery runway, the wheel brakes were not effective, so after touch-down the pilot tried to apply the engine-based thrust reverser, but it did not operate. What happened? 12 Failures are often system emergence: a320 crash in Warsaw, poland. (Source: Str news/reuters) Chapter 2 • SyStem thinking 45 which was signaled by weight compressing both landing gear assemblies. But because one wing was held low, the landing gear on one side was not compressed.
Form is not function, but form is necessary to deliver function. Function is what a system does; it is the activities, operations, and transformations that cause, create, or contribute to performance. Function is the action for which a thing exists or is employed. Function is not form, but function requires an instrument of form. Emergence occurs in the functional domain. Function, performance, the “ilities,” and emergencies are all issues of functionality. Function is more abstract than form, and because it is about transitions, it is more difficult to diagram than form.
For systems that are fundamentally modular, the decomposition is more challenging but still relatively clear. Modules are relatively independent, especially in function. Internal relationships are dense within a module, and relationships between modules are weaker or less dense. For the amplifier circuit system, there are inputs, resistors, amplifiers, internal nodes, and connections. There may be some fuzziness about where the resistor ends and the connector begins, but it is largely clear. Integral systems are the most difficult to decompose.