By Brad Buecker
An exceptional primer for strength plant execs who've to put on many hats and want a realistic clarification of the layout and uncomplicated operation of traditional steam producing boilers and HRSGs with no need to struggle through technical fabric. Buecker makes use of anecdotes and humor to brighten up what may rather be thought of a dry topic. No different booklet explains the basics of boilers and HRSGs with no going into technical depths.
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Ash fusion temperatures of most coals are typically above 2,000°F (1,093°C) even in a reducing atmosphere. This is at least 300°F (166°C) above the top temperature in the fluidized bed. Fouling of superheaters and convective pass structures can still be a problem, as furnace temperatures are still high enough for sodium to form the usual vaporous oxide (see chapter 3). A principal advantage of CFB units centers around fuel residence time. In a pulvarized coal unit, the residence time may only be two or three seconds; residence time in a CFB theoretically could be infinite, as the design forces heavier, unburned particles to return to the furnace.
Underfire air flows upwards through the grate, but a unique feature is a series of air discharge ports along the length of the grate, from which sequenced pulses of air augment gravity to keep fuel flowing as it travels from top to bottom. The periodic pulses improve fuel/air mixing and combustion, but are regulated to prevent fuel from being prematurely blown to the bottom of the grate. The pulsing system adds an additional fuel flow control method previously not available for solid fuel combustion.
43 Buecker Ch2 44 9/11/02 | 11:53 AM Page 44 Basics of Boiler & HRSG Design Some HRSGs are single-pressure units, but much more common are multiple-pressure systems, as they offer improved efficiency. Figure 2-6 illustrates a triple-pressure HRSG—several aspects of this unit stand out. First is the configuration of the circuits within the HRSG. Those in the hottest zone are the highpressure (HP) reheater, superheater, and evaporator (boiler). These are followed by the intermediate-pressure (IP) and low-pressure (LP) circuits.