Basic Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Core Material by Austin Ugwumadu

By Austin Ugwumadu

This textbook takes a brand new, dynamic method of the elemental sciences in obstetrics and gynaecology. It teaches applicants all they should comprehend for the MRCOG half 1 exam by means of extending the knowledge of the elemental clinical sciences and their relevance to obstetrics and gynaecology. Like traditional textbooks it teaches what's 'true', however it additionally what's 'false', and why. the main advanced thoughts are mentioned in a problem-based layout in order that the correct simple sciences are taught and drawn jointly in context.

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Additional info for Basic Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Core Material for MRCOG Part 1

Example text

G. skin, resting skeletal muscle, and kidneys (there is no effect on the brain or coronary circuits) 3. veins—venoconstriction and changing the amount of blood stored in the reservoir. ● Peripheral circulation The four main components of the circulation, namely the left side of the heart, the systemic circulation, the right side of the heart, and the pulmonary circulation, are all connected in series as a circuit. Thus, flow is the same at all points in the system. Therefore, if the cardiac output (CO) in the left ventricle is 5 l/min, the same is true of the right ventricle, and if the CO in the systemic circuit increases to 20 l/min, the same will apply to the pulmonary circuit.

4). The anterior border of its upper part forms the sacral promontory at the lumbosacral junction. It demarcates the entrance to the pelvic cavity posteriorly and is easily felt as a landmark at laparotomy. The anterior aspect of the sacrum presents a central mass and a line for four anterior sacral foramina on either side, which transmit the upper four sacral nerve roots. Lateral to these foramina on each side is the lateral mass. The superior aspect of the lateral mass on each side forms the ala (wing) of the sacrum.

In pregnancy, the placental circulation is also connected into the systemic circulation in parallel and further reduces systemic vascular resistance. This is reversed at delivery, resulting in an increase in resistance and thus blood pressure in the immediate postpartum period. ● ● One major advantage of the parallel connection of major organs to the systemic circulation is that flow can be independently controlled without changes in flow to other organs unless there are dramatic changes in the perfusing pressure.

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