By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr
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Extra resources for Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond
The declaration of war led to the development of an ideology of “unhyphenated Americanism,” including the 100 Per Cent Americanism movement. THE PALMER RAIDS As World War I came to a close, Americans’ new fear became the “Red Scare,” shorthand for communism. S. senator in Atlanta, and prominent businessmen and government officials (Gerstle 2004). , where the house of A. Mitchell Palmer, the attorney general, was partially destroyed. The culprit, who died in the blast, was an Italian anarchist. ” Under the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918, Palmer and his young assistant J.
Second, material resources comprise “tangible goods and services” such as (1) finances (including levels of affluence among leaders/members); (2) facilities and space for meetings and offices; (3) equipment and supplies; and (4) access to transportation. Third, informational resources include (1) strategic “know-how” of lobbying and claims making in general; (2) technical support; and (3) referrals. Fourth, human resources include (1) captive audiences; (2) leaders or spokespersons; (3) a cadre of committed volunteers and supporters with the ability to recruit more members; (4) group cohesion or internal solidarity, on McCarthy and Zald’s assertion that those who “are highly organized internally (either communally or associationally) are more likely to spawn other organized forms” (1977, 1218); (5) access to elites, communication media, and expertise in using these media as resources; and (6) preexisting coalitions with outside groups, labor, organizational/social networks, and political connections (McCarthy and Zald 1977, 216; Statham 1999).
This requires similarities in culture, such as language and religion, or certain structural conditions, such as social class, race, generation, and geographical dispersion. Yet David Lopez and Yen Espiritu argue that “structural factors, not cultural commonalties, better explain the emergence and success of panethnicity” (218). The structural factors that were instrumental in developing Asian panethnicity include (1) targeted violence, (2) outsiders’ perception that Asian ethnics are “foreigners” (Espiritu 1992; Tuan 1998), (3) racial lumping (Min 1999, 29), which is a result of the government’s classification of Asians as a minority population, and consequently (4) entitlement to affirmative action and other programs.