By Juan Manuel Ramds Arreguin (ed.)
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4. Camera constant fc in terms of the distance d As can be seen from equation (5), when the distance goes to infinity, the camera constant equals to the focal length of the lens, what can be inferred from Fig. 4, as well. Since in industrial applications the distance ranges from 200 to 5000 mm, it is clear that the camera constant is always greater than the focal length of the lens. Because physical measurement of the distance is overly erroneous, it is generally recommended to use calibrating algorithms, like MCT, to extract this parameter.
Concerning nonlinear control design it can be seen that sliding mode control exhibits an overall up to best performance. All criteria except settling time range in high performance being only outperformed by input balancing concerning Cartesian distortion (fig. 14(b)). This is met by a far lesser overshooting during settling time (fig 14(c)) which substantiates the performance of sliding mode control. Due to inclusion of uncertainties in design its disturbance rejection during trajectory following up equals observer performance via input balancing.
J. (1983). Tracking Control of Nonlinear Systems Using Sliding Surfaces, Doctoral Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. -J. (1985). The Robust Control of Robot Manipulators, International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 49-64, 1985. ; Li, W. (1991). Applied Nonlinear Control, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 978-0130408907, New Jersey. -W. (1999), Robot Analysis, Wiley-Interscience; ISBN: 978-0471325932, New York. I. (1977). A Survey: Variable Structure Systems with Sliding Modes, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol.