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Since no regeneration takes place while the water is being processed, the pH and conductivity controllers should be placed in the manual mode and transferred to automatic when regeneration starts. This will prevent the controllers from saturating their integral term. For details of what integral saturation means, refer to the section headed Integral Saturation and Reset Windup later in this chapter. INDUSTRIES THAT USE CONDUCTIVITY AS A MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY No photographic film manufacturer can operate without deionized water, and we have seen conductivity measurement and control in the anion exchanger column as an integral part of it.
During this time, there will still be no response from the control valve and therefore no control of the process. Transferring from manual to automatic operation will give results as described for the open circuit, but the severity will depend on the magnitude of the manual change made. The effect of the control action will begin to be seen only when the controller output goes below 100 percent of its output value, at which point the valve is able to start responding. To overcome this serious problem, it is necessary to stop the integral action continuing to drive the output under its own dictate, but yet let the integrator take on the value of the adjusted controlled output.
A radiometric detector, which uses a nuclear source, detects the level of molten glass in the furnace and regulates the amount of raw material via a cascade loop of furnace level onto the raw material supply. Temperature control plays an important part in the system strategy, and positioning of the detectors is crucial. The molten glass is withdrawn from the furnace into machinery that forms it into the end product(s). In the UK this part of the furnace is called the working end; and the portion of the furnace into which the raw material is fed is called the melting end.