By B.B.S. Singhal †, R.P. Gupta
Hydrogeology is a topical and transforming into topic because the earth's water assets turn into scarcer and extra susceptible. greater than 1/2 the skin region of continents is roofed with tough rocks of low permiability.
This booklet bargains comprehensively with the basic rules for realizing the hydrogeological features of rocks, in addition to exploration recommendations and evaluate. It additionally presents extensive dialogue on structural mapping, distant sensing, geophysical exploration, GIS, groundwater move modelling and contaminant shipping, box hydraulic checking out together with tracer assessments, groundwater caliber, geothermal reservoirs, controlled aquifer recharge, and assets overview and management.
Hydrogeological features of varied lithology teams, together with crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, carbonate rocks and clastic formations were handled individually, utilizing and discussing examples from around the globe. it is going to be a useful textual content ebook cum reference resource for postgraduate scholars, researchers, exploration scientists and engineers engaged within the box of groundwater improvement in fractured rocks.
Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks - moment version is punctiliously revised and prolonged with a brand new bankruptcy, up to date sections, many new examples, and improved and up to date references.
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Extra info for Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks
Ir deseribes the average (or modal) perpendieular distanee between two adjaeent diseontinuities of the same set. Ir has a profound influenee on rock mass permeability and groundwater flow. Fraeture spacing is reciproeal of the fraeture frequeney or linear fraeture density. Ir also controls fraeture intensity and matrix block size. , is related to lithology where Y is a eonstant related to lithology. Modelling and theoretieal approaehes also show that fraeture spaeing and bed thiekness should have a linear relationship, for a given lithologie material.
13. g. day, fault gauge, breccia, chert, calcite. Filling material could be homogeneaus or heterogeneous, and could partly or completely fill the discontinuity. The material may have variable permeability, depending upon mineralogy, grain size, width etc. The net effect of wall coatings and infillings is a reduced aperture. 3). The 2D methods are based on observations made at the rock surface, at surface or subsurface levels. 25). These methods give an idea of the hydrogeologie properties at and around the site of observation.
7. 12g). 8. Faults create linear zones of higher seeondary porosity; these zones may act as preferred channels of groundwater flow, leading to reeharge/discharge. 9. A fault may lead to inter-basinal subsurface flow. 10. A fault zone, when silicified, may aet as a barrier for groundwater flow. 5 Other geological discontinuities In addition to the above structural features, there could be other geologieal boundaries such as uneonformities and intrusive eontacts which may act as discontinuities. Unconformity is a surface of erosion and nondeposition separating overlying younger strata from the underlying older rocks.