Anglo-Italian Relations in the Middle East, 1922-1940 by Massimiliano Fiore

By Massimiliano Fiore

Among 1923 and 1934, Britain and Italy waged battle via proxy within the heart East. in the back of the looks of eu collaboration, family among London and Rome within the crimson Sea have been particularly annoying. even supposing realistically Mussolini couldn't identify or continue colonies within the Arabian Peninsula within the face of British competition, his regime undertook a few projects within the area to augment Italo-Arab relatives and to pave the way in which for destiny growth as soon as the stability of energy in Europe had shifted in Italy's favour. This publication examines 4 key facets of family members among Britain and Italy within the center East within the interwar interval: the disagreement among London and Rome for political impression between Arab leaders and nationalists; the contest for advertisement and exchange benefits within the zone; the Anglo-Italian propaganda battle to win the hearts and minds of the Arab populations; and, the key global of British and Italian espionage and intelligence. a close research of those 4 key parts demonstrates how Anglo-Italian family broke down over the interwar interval and complements our wisdom and figuring out of the criteria top as much as the widening of the second one global struggle within the Mediterranean. This ebook is vital examining for students fascinated with Anglo-Italian kinfolk, the actions of the Powers within the center East and the tensions among the colonial powers.

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The latter, a narrow band of water bordering the eastern coast of Africa and the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula, directly linked the Mediterranean with the Indian Ocean through the Straits of Bab El-Mandeb. The fact that after the First World War almost 70 per cent of the territory of the British Empire lay to the east of the Suez Canal only Quoted in Lowe and Marzari, Italian Foreign Policy, p. 125. Mussolini, Opera Omnia, vol. 13, p. 71; vol. 18, p. 432, 439. 27 IO to Foreign Office (FO), ‘Proposed Treaty with the Imam of Sanaa’, 5 July 1923, E 7893/3645/91 FO 371/8953.

25 Yet Mussolini adopted different methods. While the exponents of Liberal Italy had tried to elevate the country to the status of a great power by exploiting the so-called policy of the ‘decisive weight’, the Duce followed the same goals by making use of violence, blackmail and threats. 27 The main Arab players in that vacuum were the Imamate of Yemen, the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz and the Sultanate of Nejd. With the signing of the Armistice of Mudros in 1918, Yemen became formally independent of the Ottoman Empire.

Anglo-Italian Covert War in the Arabian Peninsula and in the Red Sea, 1922–1934 31 the European balance of power caused by the emergence of a dynamic, revisionist Nazi Germany had given the Fascist Regime more room for manoeuvre. 106 It followed, therefore, that the Fascist Regime was finally able to carry out a more aggressive imperial policy in the Red Sea. Large quantities of arms and ammunitions were continually smuggled to Hodeidah and a mission was dispatched to Sanaa in order to open negotiations for a new treaty and to settle outstanding questions between the two countries.

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