Anaphora in Natural Language Understanding: A Survey by Graeme Hirst (auth.)

By Graeme Hirst (auth.)

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2. 4 . 2 Definite reference ANAPHORA (2-104) Nadia bought a DECsystem-10. The processor 27 i s a KL10B. T h e s c e n e f o r t h e s e c o n d e x a m p l e is s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r ( 2 - 2 0 ) , e x c e p t t h a t t h i s time the guest is admiring the host's new car. The host comes up and remarks: (2-105) Because I'm a nostalgic horse racing fan, I've had the speedometer marked in furlongs per hour. t n t h e s e e x a m p l e s , t h e N P s the p r o c e s s o r a n d the s p e e d o m e t e r m e a n t h o s e of t h e D E C s y s t e m - 1 0 a n d t h e c a r , 5° r e s p e c t i v e l y , a n d s e m a n t i c a l l y s t a n d i n t h e r e l a t i o n PART OF t o t h o s e a n t e c e d e n t s .

Parse tree s e a r c h i n g An a l g o r i t h m f o r s e a r c h i n g a p a r s e t r e e of a s e n t e n c e t o find t h e r e f e r e n t f o r a p r o n o u n h a s b e e n g i v e n b y J e r r y H o b b s (1976, 1977). 2) t o s e a r c h t h e t r e e in a n o p t i m a l o r d e r s u c h t h a t t h e NP u p o n w h i c h it t e r m i n a t e s is p r o b a b l y t h e a n t e c e d e n t of t h e p r o n o u n a t w h i c h t h e a l g o r i t h m s t a r t e d . ) B e c a u s e t h e a l g o r i t h m o p e r a t e s p u r e l y o n t h e p a r s e , it d o e s n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e m e a n i n g of t h e t e x t , n o r c a n it find n o n - e x p l i c i t a n t e c e d e n t s .

The a n t e c e d e n t s are, r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e "vTs s9 t h i n k s a n d o r d e r s s w e e t a n d s o u r j'~i~cl s h o r t s o u p . U n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s t h e a n t e c e d e n t c a n b e two o r m o r e VPs. W e b b e r a n d Sag (1978) cite t h i s e x a m p l e : Nash- (2-74) She walks a n d she c h e w s g u m . J e r r y d 0 e s too, b u t n o t a t t h e s a m e time. Of c o u r s e , n o t all o c c u r r e n c e s of to do a r e a n a p h o r i c : it c a n also m e a n to p e r f o r m < s o m e t a s k > , a n d i t c a n be a m e a n i n g l e s s a u x i l i a r y : (2-75) Nadia di__/dh e r e x e r c i s e s .

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