By William Stivers
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Additional resources for America’s Confrontation with Revolutionary Change in the Middle East, 1948–83
19 Thus the president's conciliatory policy ended as little more than a footnote to history. But his military strategy endured - and constitutes his chief contribution to the development of the future US position in the Middle East. That position would hinge not on America's ability to achieve a modus vivendi with Arab nationalism, or to broker political settlements to regional conflict, but on US military power in the Indian Ocean. As formulated by New Frontier foreign policy planners, US strategy involved three main actions on the part of the United States: first, the establishment of a US presence through deployment of naval task forces in the Indian Ocean on a regular basis.
Using troops airlifted from Britain and Aden, and from British naval vessels stationed off the East African 46 America and Revolution in the Middle East coast, the British quashed the rebels in short order. In this instance, the fleet carrier HMS Centaur served as an improvised commando ship deploying troops to Tanganyika. But the British would not for long operate at such heights. For both the territorial and financial bases of British power were withering away. American policy makers saw the problem clearly and struggled to resolve it.
27 Thus, in order to halt Iran's slide into communism, it was necessary to overthrow the country's nationalist premier (who had invited American support). In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on 29 April 1953, John Foster Dulles put this sort of reasoning in a global context. The area all the way from Turkey to Japan and Korea was 'soft', the Secretary declared. It was filled with 'social problems and unrest which would exist if there were no such thing as Soviet communism in the world'.