American Civil War Fortifications (3). The Mississippi and by Field R., Hook A.

By Field R., Hook A.

The Mississippi River performed a decisive function within the American Civil struggle. The accomplice fortifications that managed the decrease Mississippi valley have been placed to the attempt within the long Federal crusade of 1862-63. Vicksburg was once a fort urban, referred to as the "Gibraltar of the Confederacy," whose catch is usually visible because the key to victory within the struggle. This booklet explores the fortifications of the river valley, concentrating on Vicksburg and its defenses which boasted a community of forts, rifle pits, and cannon embrasures surrounding town and interpreting the strengths and weaknesses of the fortifications whilst below siege. additionally tested are quite a few different fortified strongholds, together with New Orleans, Port Hudson, New Madrid and, forts Henry and Donelson, all lavishly illustrated with complete colour art and cutaways.

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Brigadier General Martin Luther Smith assumed command of Vicksburg on May 12, 1862 and the defense of the city became the overall responsibility of Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton on October 14, 1862. Some of the first works erected consisted of extensive fortifications and batteries on the bluffs above the Yazoo River about 12 miles upstream from Vicksburg at Synder's (Haynes') Bluff. Containing nine large guns and garrisoned by the 22nd Louisiana and 3rd Mississippi, totaling 1,300 men initially under the command of Colonel Edward Higgins, these works extended approximately two miles southward, blocking Union gunboats from raiding the fertile Yazoo River valley, and serving as an outpost of the main Vicksburg fortifications.

10 O. 8 P. 9 Q. Vaiden Battery R. Battery S. Whig Office Battery T. Wyman's Hill Battery U. 5 V. Battery No. 4 W. Devil's Backbone Battery X. Upper Water Battery Y. Pemberton's HQ ~ Union Siege Works: A. Battery Selfridge B. Battery Barrett C. Battery Hart D. Battery Jenney E. Battery Waterhouse F. Battery Wood G. White House Battery H. Battery Hickenlooper I. Battery McPherson J. Battery Logan K. Battery De Golyer L. Battery Archer M. Battery Maloney N. 9 O. 8 P. Battery No. 7 Q. 6 R. Battery Benton S.

A six-pounder gun of Lowe's Missouri Battery, under Lieutenant Thomas B. Catron, stood behind a low parapet to the right and rear, with the 5th Missouri Infantry in support. It was in this work that Brigadier General Martin E. Green declared, "a bullet has not yet been molded that will kill me," just moments before he passed in front of an artillery embrasure and was slain by a Union sharpshooter. After June 2, 1863, Green's Redan was held by elements of the 20th Arkansas Infantry. The parapets in the Twenty-seventh Louisiana Lunette to the left were of the same dimensions as Green's Redan, and contained a single 12-pounder gun of McNally's Arkansas Battery, commanded by Captain Joseph T.

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