By way of interpreting and evaluating agricultural guidelines in India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam, this examine is helping fill an important hole in improvement examine. The record offers an overview of conceptual and dimension matters with regards to the consequences of exchange and domestic-support guidelines and coverage reforms at the incentives of agricultural manufacturers and provides empirical estimates of the measure of safeguard or disprotection within the 4 international locations. From India's countercyclical coverage results and Indonesia's excessive degrees of agricultural safety, to the fashion towards modest help of agriculture in China and Vietnam, the report's effects exhibit either how alterations in agricultural coverage can increase farmers' incentives as financial development happens and the way tricky it truly is to reform entrenched coverage interventions. via such findings, the record contributes to coverage discussions on growing propoor regulations on the topic of agricultural aid and alternate, either on the household point and in foreign negotiations.
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Extra info for Agricultural Producer Support Estimates for Developing Countries: Measurement Issues and Evidence from India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam
In some cases, neither the applied nor the bound level has economic meaning (for example, for tariffs, when a certain product is exported rather than imported). The PSEs are indicators that capture the nature and degree of multiple policies, including production-stimulating border protection and amber box price supports. The PSEs also include support associated with production-limiting programs (the WTO blue box) and some policies affecting production and regional growth that are exempt from the amber box under de minimis exemptions or under special and differential treatment for developing countries.
From 1989 to 1991 the dong was depreciated several times as part of the stabilization program (Vo et al. 2000). Between 1991 and 1997 the exchange rate was kept rather stable through strict controls over capital outflows, but the dong was depreciated again in 1997 because of balance of payments pressures resulting from declined foreign direct investments and export earnings. Since February 1999 the exchange rate has followed a crawling peg. The Pivotal Role of Agriculture There have been significant changes in the structure of the economies of India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam as agriculture has grown more slowly than other sectors over the past two decades.
We also draw on an earlier draft manuscript of their book. Further discussion is provided in the other references cited herein and the five background papers for this study. India Indian agricultural policy has long been characterized by border and domestic interventions aimed at protecting farmers from international price volatility. To achieve this goal the government of India (GOI) has implemented myriad policies, including tariffs, quantitative import restrictions (QRs), import licensing, domestic marketing controls, and export restrictions.