By Dominic Pasura (auth.)
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Additional info for African Transnational Diasporas: Fractured Communities and Plural Identities of Zimbabweans in Britain
68–9) argues, labour migration ‘became almost a rite of passage for young men to go kuWenela (with WNLA to the South African mines) to raise cash to meet colonial tax requirements at home and to earn money for lobola (bridewealth) to enable them to settle down and start their own families’. The mines were over one thousand kilometres away from Zimbabwe, and by 1966, an estimated 75,000 black Zimbabweans were working in South Africa; the numbers increased in the mid-1970s as supplies from Malawi and Mozambique were unreliable at the time (Nkau, 2003).
1994; Faist, 2000). As Zeleza (2005, p. 56) explains, contemporary African diasporas have ‘unprecedented opportunities to be transnational and transcultural, to be people of multiple worlds and focalities, perpetually translocated, physically and culturally, between several countries or several continents’. From the earlier discussion on African diasporas, I have showed how the term African diaspora as a concept has been stretched from a property of the descendants of the transatlantic slave trade to a feature of dispersed Africans in the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean as well as to contemporary patterns of voluntary and forced migration from the continent.
However, Zinyama (1990) puts the estimate of Zimbabweans working in South Africa comparatively lower at around 37,000 during the same period. The flight of white Zimbabweans Since the 1970s, large numbers of white Zimbabwean emigrants, perhaps in their hundreds and thousands, arrived in South Africa, the UK, Australia, United States and Canada. The second period of emigration, between 1972 and 1989, consists of white Zimbabweans running away from the war, military call-up and general unhappiness about the changed political situation after the country’s independence (Astrow, 1983; Selby, 2006).