Advances in Photonics for Information and Communication by Pira International Ltd

By Pira International Ltd

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It has been demonstrated in the laboratory for a distance of 100km. Pirelli has announced what it calls light WSM (LWDM) based on coarse WDM (CWDM) and dense WDM. 5Gbps or 10Gbps, giving a total capacity of 175Gbps on a single platform. 1 Wavelength division multiplexing λ λ 4JOHMFPQUJDBMGJCSF λ λ %JGGFSFOUXBWFMFOHUIT PGMJHIUBSFJOKFDUFE 5IFNJYFEMJHIUJT DPQJFEUIFOGJMUFSFE Source: Pira International Ltd DWDM WDM is used to multiplex signals in the 1,550nm transmission window. Recent innovations in DWDM systems include pluggable and tunable software transceivers that can handle up to 160 different channels.

A MAN is not owned by a single user but by a service provider or a group of users. MANs are typically used to connect together many LANs in a geographical area or a large organisation. A MAN typically has a range of 5–50km. MANs are connected to a WAN for internet and other resources. Technologies used in MANs include ATM, FDDI and SMDS. Optical technology is being used to create metro-optical networks (MONs) that overcome the bandwidth constraints and low capacity in existing MANs. MONs are being developed to meet everincreasing demands for bandwidth and a shortage of fibre-optic cable.

Their resolution is a function of the number of photodiodes and the size of the photodiodes relative to the image size. CCDs may have several hundred pixels to several thousand pixels. CCDs used in astronomy have pixel arrays that range from 1,000 × 1,000 up to 5,000 × 5,000. CCDs are also used in optical scanners and fingerprint sensors. Next-generation CCDs Electron-multiplying CCD An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) offers high sensitivity and can detect single photons. EMCCDs are also known as L3Vision CCD, L3CCD and Impactron CCDs.

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