Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 43 by Barry Saltzman, Renata Dmowska

By Barry Saltzman, Renata Dmowska

This sequence presents a venue for longer experiences of present advances in geophysics. Written at a degree obtainable to graduate scholars, the articles serve to increase wisdom of varied fields and will be necessary in classes and seminars.

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9). The source-receiver distance is 100 km and the vertical interface between the two media is placed right at the middle of the path. An instantaneous point-source is placed at the depth of 10 km, with a scalar seismic moment of 10 ~3 Nm. The orientation of the double-couple of forces is defined as follows: strike-receiver angle = 60 ~ dip = 90 ~ rake = 180 ~ The cut-off frequency for the computations is 1 Hz. In Fig. 21 the seismograms are shown for the three components of displacement, grouped for the four structural models: models C and P and 2-D models CP and PC.

Among the spectral methods, the most popular is the WKBJ method (acronym for G. Wentzel, H. Kramers, L. Brillouin, and H. Jeffreys), where the source is represented as a sum of Snell waves, each one propagating independently from the other ones. The seismogram is then calculated summing all the propagated waves (Chapman, 1978). Recently, advances in ray theory have been obtained applying the ray perturbation theory. In this way the techniques known as paraxial rays and Gaussian beams have been developed (Farra and Madariaga, 1987; Madariaga, 1989).

A drastic change is required in the orientation of zoning that must be a predisaster activity performed to mitigate the effects of the next earthquake, using all available technologies. The events in Los Angeles (1994) and Kobe (1995) clearly show that we must be able to take preventive steps, extending, in a scientifically acceptable way, the obtained results to areas in which no direct experience has yet been gained. Seismic zoning can use scientific data banks, integrated in an expert system, by means of which it is possible not only to identify the safest and most suitable areas for urban development, but also to define the seismic input that is going to affect a given building.

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