Advances in Food Research, Vol. 18 by C.O. Chichester, E.M. Mrak, G.F. Stewart (Eds.)

By C.O. Chichester, E.M. Mrak, G.F. Stewart (Eds.)

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This process is not nomially employed to a great extent, since most meats suffer loss of flavor and tenderness. Removal of moisture by freeze-drying appears more feasible and involves less flavor loss but has some danger of off-flavor develop- 20 KARL 0. HERZ AND STEPHEN S. CHANG ment. , 1962). Phospholipids are oxidized first, the more saturated tissue triglycerides later. Water extracts of freeze-dried meat contained enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and the citric acid cycle, other sarcoplasmic proteins, and myoglobin.

Brothy flavor was continuously given off, and this flavor increased in strength with time of cooking (cf. Landmann and Batzer, 1966). After the l-hr treatment, analysis showed that there were left sufficient nonvolatile reserves to continue producing flavor compounds. Desirable flavor continues to be given off during heating of either finely divided lean beef slurries (K. 0. , 1964b). Since diffusion of reactants cannot be a serious deterrent under these conditions, the rate-limiting step(s) causing continuous evolution of volatiles must be in the conversion of precursor to reactant and/or in the flavor-producing reaction itself.

Conceivably, the relative increase in salt concentration could, by a dehydrating mechanism or simply by an increased “salting-out” effect, raise a larger number of flavor molecules to a volatile state under the influence of heat, or induce otherwise less volatile compounds to join the train of aroma compounds in flavor isolation steps. 1). ON THE ORIGIN OF b‘lEAT FLAVOR COMPOUNDS-EARLY VIEWS Landmann and Batzer (1966) considered that cooked meat flavor is a complex mixture of volatile and nonvolatile compounds resulting from reactions induced by heat in raw meat flavor precursors, both nonvolatile and volatile.

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