A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts by P. G. von Mollendorff

By P. G. von Mollendorff

A Manchu Grammar: with Analysed Texts
Paul Georg von Mollendorff

Contents

I-Phonology
--Alphabet (Table) Pronunciation
--Harmony of Vowels
--Diphthongs and Triphthongs
--Word alterations and overseas phrases

II-Etymology
--Nouns and Adjectives, Terminations, Plural Case Affixes
--Pronouns
--Numerals
--Verbs, Derivation, Moods and Tenses, Irregularities, Negation
--Adverbs
--Postpositions
--Conjunctions
--Interjections

III-Syntax

Manchu Texts with Translation and research

Index of Affixes and phrases

Appendix--European Literature Treating on Manchu

Introduction

There is as but no grammar of the Manchu language in English. Wylie's translation of Tsing Wan Ki Mung, Shanghai, 1855, one of those Mauchu hand-book for using chinese language, notwithstanding important and whole of curiosity, is in no way a grammar.

The common curiosity taken in each language will, after all, be additionally prolonged to Manchu; nonetheless a couple of phrases look essential to express the actual usefulness of its examine.

There exist in all approximately 25O works in Manchu, the majority of which arc translations from the chinese language. They include translations from the Classics, a few ancient and metaphysical works, literary essays, collections of recognized writers, novels, poetry, legislation and rules, Imperial edicts, dictionaries, word books, ere. every one of these translations are first-class, yet they're all literal. carried out lower than the eyes of clever princes, they shape a competent expression of the that means of the chinese language textual content and feature accordingly a correct to reputation equivalent to that liked through commentaries of excellent writers. Manchu being infinitely more straightforward to benefit than chinese language, those translations are an exceptional aid in the direction of acquiring a transparent perception into chinese language syntax, and students like Stanislas Julien, who owed the impressive precision in his renderings to his wisdom of Manchu, have many times pointed this out. In a letter addressed to Dr. Legge he alludes to the examine of Manchu as being of serious counsel in translating the Classics. Dr. Legge, besides the fact that, within the preface to his translation of the Shuking, suggested himself opposed to it. the explanations complicated through this nice student aren't very cogent, and, in reality, now not understanding the language, he was once infrequently useful to pass judgement on. yet, whether he have been correct, others should be in a special place. Dr. Legge used to be possibly extra lucky or extra talented than most folks and had a radical mastery of chinese language on the time whilst St. Julien wrote to him. those that locate chinese language tougher have a tendency to think about the Manchu translations an exceptional aid.

This grammar being meant for the sensible function of guiding the scholar in...

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Additional info for A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts

Sample text

This difference is expressed in terms of [± Interpretable] features. Among the [+Interpretable] features are categorial features and the phi-features of nomináis. Interpretable features cannot be deleted and so remain accessible to the computation and visible at LF. Chomsky argues that the categories T, C and D have Interpretable features: they "provide" instructions at either or both interface levels. Agr, however, consists solely of [-Interpretable] features. There is evidence from interface relations about T, C and D, but Agr is present for theory-internal reasons only.

5. Structure of the study In Chapter 2 we will discuss word order in declaratives in BP, especially the obligatory SVO order with transitives. That discussion will lead us to an analysis of the basic structure in BP sentences. In the process of putting forth that account, we will consider examples from Spanish, Italian and French, looking especially at adverb position in all four languages, a fundamental tool for the analysis. Chapter 3 contains the analyses of different occurrences of VS in Brazilian Portuguese.

TP Spec T' [Todos os meninos]¡ Τ AspP viajaram-j Spec Asp' Asp^^VP Spec ti b. V' Δ t¡ TP Spec Τ' [Os meninos\\ Τ AspP viajarams Spec Asp' Asp Spec todos t¡ VP V' L 20 Adverb position 49 Returning to adverbs, it is possible that in Portuguese and Spanish (and Italian, cf. [7c]) an adverb is adjoined to T' if adverbs can adjoin to X'. The structure in this instance would be as follows: (26) TP Spec Subject ya/jä T' Τ' T+V AspP Spec Asp' Asp Note that in (26), an important assumption is that ya/ja can modify tense in Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese, thus adjoining to T'.

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