A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.  

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14 if. 20 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II the Zirids,27 and while he renewed the earlier agreement with Yahya's son and successor `All (I116-1121), he seems to have supported the efforts of Rafi`, the governor of Gabes and a chieftain of the Banu-Hilal, to break with the emir. " Roger may well have felt inclined to challenge so sweeping a claim. Rafi` turned to him for help, and he sent twenty-four galleys to Gabes, but the captain of this force had the good sense to retire to Sicily when the Zirid fleet put out from Mahdia to meet him.

Bloch, "The Schism of Anacletus II and the Grandfeuil Forgeries of Peter the Deacon," Traditio, VIII (1952), 1 5q--265; E. , Paris, 1895); idem, "Saint Bernard ct ]a seconde croisadc," Revue des questions historiques, XXXVIII (1885), 398-457; E. , Stuttgart and Berlin, 1922-1923), III, r8x-22o; W. , 1952); E. Willems, "Citeaux et la Ch. I NORMAN KINGDOM OF SICILY AND THE CRUSADES 9 flicting German, papal, and Byzantine claims to Apulia, and by the latent antagonism between Genoa and Pisa. It is more than likely that the failure of the Byzantines to support either the invading armies of the German emperor Lothair II or the simultaneous rebellion of the Apulian barons in I137 saved the kingdom of Sicily from destruction.

Hagenmeyer's notes to Fulcher of Chartres, Historia 7erusalem (Heidelberg, 1913), pp. 576-577 Compare R. Rohricht, Geschichte des (Innsbruck, x898), pp. 103, 113, 118; Runciman, Crusades, II, tez-1o5; and volume I of the present work, chapter XII, pp. 406-407; also E. " 7 Although the title was later changed to emphasize the original divisions of Norman Italy, and the papal right to the investiture of each of them (regnurn Siciliae, ducatus 4puliae, et principatus Capuae), Christmas day of 1130 foreshadows the later kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

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