By Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin
The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
Read Online or Download A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years PDF
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years
During the first few weeks after the invasion, the safe release of these foreign citizens was the focus of many diplomatic efforts. On August 18, however, Iraq announced that it would continue to serve as the “host” of the foreign citizens who had been trapped in Iraq and Kuwait at the time of the invasion. Furthermore, Iraqi officials said that they planned to use the foreigners as “human shields” to protect military 32 The War in the Persian Gulf: Almanac and industrial targets from attack. Iraqi forces then moved thousands of American, British, and French citizens to Baghdad and other key locations in Iraq and Kuwait.
Hussein escaped from prison after two years and became the security organizer for the Baath Party. He created a large force that used violence to terrify citizens and remove rival political leaders. In 1968 the Baath Party again overthrew the Iraqi government and returned to power. Bakr became president of Iraq, and his ambitious younger cousin Hussein became deputy chairman of the party’s Revolutionary Command Council. Hussein also served as the head of internal security for the Baathist government.
Every dollar drop in the price per barrel cost Iraq an estimated $1 billion per year. Hussein thus blamed Kuwait for making Iraq’s financial problems worse. On July 17 Hussein made a fiery speech in which he accused Kuwait of stealing oil from the Iraqi side of the South Rumaila oil field, which straddled the border of Iraq and Kuwait. “The oil quota violators have stabbed Iraq with a poison dagger,” he declared, as quoted in Understanding the Crisis in the Persian Gulf. “Iraqis will not forget the saying that cutting necks is better than cutting means of living.