A History of the Crusades, Vol. III: The Fourteenth and by Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard

By Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard

The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the background, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.

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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Vol. III: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

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Aft in Konstanllnopel itn Rahmen der abendflzndischen Polltik, 1261 bu etwa 1310 (Jena, 1938); also G. Bratianu, "Notes sur le projet de mariage entre l'ernpereur Michel IX Pal6ologue et Cath~rine de Courtenay 27 28 A HISTORY OP THE CRUSADES m Urban II the idea of launching the First Crusade. {)3 ; and C. , 139-140. On Chules of Valois's plans see Delaville Le Roulx, La Prance •n Orielll, pp. 4()-47, and H. QIIt de /'Ecole des drartes, Ll (1890), 63-86. Other modern works dealing in part with the subject ore M.

I. Bekker, CSHB, Bonn, 1834, ond cd. V. Grecu, l llorija turco-bizantinQ 1341-1462, Bucharest, 1958). All of these are also published in Mignc, Patrologia graeca (PG). FuJther source material is cited in F. J. Oolger, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des ostrOmi:rchen Reiches . , parts 3-5 (Munich and Berlin, 19321965). Very little bas been written speciflcaUy on Byzantine at1itudes toward the later western crusades; see V. Laurent, "L'IdAe de guerre sainte ct Ia tradition byzantine," Revue historiflue du sud· est europ~en.

Sultan Bayazid I, called "the Thunderbolt" (Yildirlm), was besieging Constantinople when the news of the advent of the crusaders was communicated to him from Nicopolis. He raised the siege immediately and mustered all his Asian and European troops for the relief of Nicopolis, which he reached on September 24 with an army about the size of the crusaders'. 27 But although t he two camps were numerically almost equal, the Turks were far superior to the Christians in discipline, unified action, tactics, and unflagging leadership.

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