By Jeffrey Heath
This can be a complete description of Tamashek Tuareg spoken in Mali. The types lined during this quantity are these of Tamashek within the slim experience, except Tawellemett yet together with the opposite Malian types (Goundam, Timbuktu, Gao, Ansongo, Kidal, and the Gourma zone south of the Niger River together with Gosi and the outskirts of Hombori).
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Extra info for A Grammar of Tamashek Tuareg
Assuming that the directionality of derivation is verb (input) to nominal (output), the cases of tt (verbs) corresponding to d (nominals) have not been "updated" to conform to the currently productive rule because the nominals have only weak influence on the associated verbs. By contrast, where the verb has d, the nominals have been updated. Likewise, any alternations of medial d and *tt among the different inflectable stems of a verb have been leveled out by updating *tt to dd. 9 Loss of stem-final semivowel There are numerous, but mostly rather lexicalized, alternations between final w or y and zero, suggesting that original stem-final semivowels have been lost in some forms.
See EPPB 61-135 for a historical analysis. A major issue in Tuareg dialectology is variation between j (affricate [d3]) and g. The T-ka dialect, which is focal in this grammar, probably has the most extreme preference for j of any Tuareg variety, though g also exists as a phoneme. T-md is generally like T-ka in this matter. At the other extremity is A-grm, which has no j as all; it has g in all cases where T-ka has j. The remaining dialects covered here, including Im and R and the Kidal-area varieties, agree with T-ka most of the time but have g in a number of lexical items corresponding to j in T-ka.
Most Sg nouns (masculine or feminine) have a vocalic prefix, such as Sg -a- or -as-, preceding the noun stem. A masculine example is α-basqkor 'old well'. Feminine nouns also normally have a Fe prefix t-, and often FeSg suffix -t. An example is t-a-bsqqan-t 'burrgrass'. The χ accent indicates that penultimate accent is predictable from the presence of suffix -t, which does not permit the usual antepenultimate default accent. For verbs, the true citation form makes use of "v" for short vowel, "υ" for full vowel, and where appropriate more specific full vowels (usually u and i).