By Nora C. England
This can be the 1st full-length reference grammar of Mam, a Mayan language spoken this present day via over 400,000 humans within the western highlands of Guatemala and the nation of Chiapas, Mexico. the results of over 3 years of in depth fieldwork in Guatemala, A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language is predicated at the dialect of Mam spoken through 12,000 humans in San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan within the division of Huehuetenango, Guatemala. England organizes A Grammar of Mam in line with complementary ideas: to investigate Mam following primarily conventional degrees of grammatical description and to give fabric in this type of manner that the history details invaluable for realizing every one subject of debate shall were formerly supplied. therefore, England's research of the sound method and morphophonemic techniques of Mam is by way of an outline of the features of root, inflectional, and derivational morphology. Chapters on word constitution precede chapters on sentence-level syntax. A Grammar of Mam is of specific curiosity in reading a Mayan language that's either syntactically and morphologically ergative and that's leading edge towards strengthening the ergative procedure. certainly in any respect degrees of linguistic association Mam is cutting edge, and hence it's uniquely fascinating either traditionally and theoretically.
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Or -i. In the absolute form it adds a suf aam-j All the roots in this class are objects which are Most of 107-j 'my skirt' 'fruit' n-lo7-ya -i are articles of clothing. General food terms fall into both categories. ::i while in the possessed form it drops the normally. or expected to be, possessed by humans. 'my fruit' Exceptions to the semantic categories: Not all body parts, relatives, foods, and clothing are in the class, and the semantic distinction between the two suffixes is not perfect.
Table 2 continued Logically Possible: Actual Forms: Gloss: 2st 3s rna tz'-ok q-tzeeq'an-a 'we hit you/him/her/it' Ip excl -+ Ip excl -+ Ip excl -+ Ip excl -+ 2p ( 3p ma ch-ok q-tzeeq'an-a 'we hit you-all/them' Ip incl -+ 3s ma tz'-ok q-tzeeq'an 'we-all hit him/her/it' Ip incl -+ 3p ma ch-ok q-tzeeq'an 'we-all hit them' 2p -+ Is ma chin ok ky-tzeeq'an-a 'you-all hit me' 2p -+ 3s ma tz'-ok ky-tzeeq'an-a 'you-all hit him/her/it' 2p -+ Ip excl ma qo ok ky-tzeeq'an-a 'you-all hit us' 2p -+ 3p ma ch-ok ky-tzeeq'an-a 'you-all hit them' 3p -+ Is 3p -+ 2s * * 3p -+ 3s ma tz'-ok ky-tzeeq'an 3p -+ Ip excl * 3p -+ Ip incl ma qo ok ky-tzeeq'an 3p -+ 2p 3p -+ 3p * * :;;: C C .
3p are not distinct and are therefore ambiguous because there is no way to differentiate the patient when the agent requires 1utive prefixes, cross-reference their agents with ergative an enclitic, unless the third person is indicated in a noun markers, and use the transitive forms of the suffixes of 2 mOde • The agent can be omitted entirely to express an phrase. Furthermore, the combinations: Table 2. Logically Possible: Is -+ 2s ( Is -+ 3s Is -+ Is -+ P 2 3p ! C 'I hit you/him/her/it' tJ > :2 rna ch-ok n-tzeeq'an-a 2s -+ Is 2s -+ 3s 2s -+ Ip excl 2s -+ 3p ma qo ok t-tzeeq'an-a ma ch-ok t-tzeeq'an-a 3s -+ Is ?