By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
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Extra info for A Grammar of Hdi
The following rule accounts for this process: Rule 8: V[+high] -^ [+round] / w. It is not possible to determine whether the vowel that becomes round is underlyingly front or schwa. Given the fact that the final non-grammatical vowels are deleted in phrase-internal position (cf. 7 below), and that schwa is inserted for syllabification, the examples below may represent equally well the rounding of the front high or central high vowel: (48) xadu wä lack water NBG 'there is no water* -> [xäcfimuwä] (49) xäni wä -> [xänuwä] sleep NBG 'he does not sleep' 5.
The position in parenthesis is the only position allowed for the cluster: 22 2 Phonology Table 5. Consonantal clusters and manner of articulation Stops Continuants Nasals Liquids Stops + + + + Continuants + + + + Nasals + + + + (V V) Liquids + + + - In word-initial position there may occur two stops: bgini 'bad spirit', dgä 'thresh', icfa'pull'; a stop and a continuant: txä (Eguchi 1971 tghä) 'expel from body', tghä 'door'; or a continuant and a stop: xgä 'house, compound', ztfä 'good'. Clusters with liquids in first or second position are allowed in word-initial and intervocalic position: Igut 'cloth, shirt', xlä 'gather*, kn 'dog'.
The word den"'hat' is certainly related to the word dara 'hat, fez' commonly found in the area (Margi, Hoffmann 1963; Hausa, Abraham 1962). Many instances of phonetic e appear to be the product of lowering of the high front vowel i in closed syllables: dimdim or demdem 'all'. Since we cannot account for all instances of e as a borrowing or a product of the lowering rule, we postulate e as an underlying vowel. The high central vowel a is fully predictable in the verbal system, where it is inserted by the requirements of tone realization and syllable structure constraints.